By Rebekah S.
Though not popular, poor walkability has become a concerning and eventually lethal issue to the U.S. Citizens, especially marginalized individuals. Traditional zoning has proven unjust and unsafe considering zoning's connection with structural racism. Additionally poor walkability has stunted the U.S. economy, causing it to cause more harm in a holistic sense. Walkability discussions have previously centralized around policies and zoning, yet researchers question the credibility of such . Form based codes present as an optimal method to replenish walkability as it allows for the combination of a regulation of the built environment, pedestrian encouragement and further encourages community building. While the new language and gentrification concerns can be a setback, the benefits undeniably outweigh them.
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Often overlooked, poor walkability has become a concerning and increasingly lethal issue
to the U.S. Citizens. Considering the statistics, marginalized persons are widely put at a bigger
disadvantage, with the built environment playing a key role. This article will discuss the
background of poor walkability, considering citizens, economics, and legalities. Additionally, the
most efficient method to diminish poor walkability will be discussed.
Traditional zoning has proven itself as harmful to these citizens, especially considering its
history of structural/environmental racism. The effect that this has on young children and
adolescents should be considered as well. Safety is an important part of walkability.
Disadvantaged individuals are left in a compromising cycle of being stunted progression due to
this issue. Poor walkability is actually worse for the economy. By recognizing the issue and
solving it, it can lead to a better transport system. The perception of suburbia can be harmful,
especially in means of poor walkability and car dependency. Researchers continue to debate if
legal policy is the best way to address walkability, with concerns of past discriminatory zoning
and suggested alternatives.
Form based codes have primarily proved themselves as the most effective solution as
they regulate the built environment and encourage pedestrianism. Additionally they work to
improve communities at the benefit of disadvantaged communities. This allows for closer
destinations and diverse citizens. Specific regulation can be efficient if done correctly. U.S.
Governments have already started commending it, further allowing for community improvement.
While the new language and gentrification concerns can be a setback, the benefits undeniably
Abstract: Christian persecution in the Middle East is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted solution. International pressure and violent harassment are major causes and impacts of this persecution. Social media emerges as the most effective solution, allowing for the exposure of religious persecution and raising awareness. It can also lead to the implementation of laws to protect against further persecution. Social media builds relationships, protects vulnerable communities, and encourages high-level acts of unity. While there may be limitations, such as misinformation and limited access, social media remains a powerful tool to address Christian persecution in the Middle East.
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Summary: Overcoming adversity through the persecution of Christians by terrorist groups is a complex issue that requires a multifaceted solution. Nelson Mandela's example of gaining freedom through struggle emphasizes the importance of courage and sacrifice (Mandela 13). Similarly, forest fires in California, as highlighted by Rahill and Guitele, symbolize overcoming adversity in uncontrollable situations (Rahill). These examples illustrate the theme of overcoming adversity in challenging circumstances. Haider Huma, a Director of Education and Research, sheds light on the decline of Christians in the Middle East due to violence, with their population now constituting only 3-4% of the region (Haider 17). The Guardian addresses the persecution faced by millions of Christians in the Middle East, including displacement, imprisonment, and discrimination (The Guardian).
To effectively address Christian persecution in the Middle East, it is essential to consider technological, social and cultural, political, and legal causes, impacts, and potential solutions. International pressure plays a crucial role in reducing Christian persecution. ISIS, a serious security threat, aims to solidify and expand its control through strict interpretation and criminal activities (Beccaro 3-8). Social hostility and terrorist violence affect religious groups in many countries, leading to injuries, deaths, and displacements (Casper 3). Raising awareness, diplomatic pressure, and legal frameworks can protect the rights of Christians and promote religious freedom (Chow 12).
Pontification and violent harassment are key challenges faced by Christians in the Middle East. Christians are killed for their faith, and religious conversion is enforced through extreme measures (Jasper 4-7). ISIS alienates Christians, confiscating their properties and means of livelihood (Garcia-Navarro 1-2). Historical impositions, such as paying taxes and wearing distinctive dress, limit religious, political, and economic freedoms (LeMasters 5).
The most effective solution to address Christian persecution is social media. Social media platforms provide a means for users to build relationships, protect vulnerable communities, and encourage high-level acts of unity. By raising awareness and educating others, social media empowers Christians and informs communities about the struggles of persecuted minorities (Soliman 2). Advocacy on social media can integrate into larger organizational goals and contribute to political commentary and accountability (Soliman 28). The U.S. Department of State emphasizes that social media can urge respect for religious freedom and promote changes in laws regulating religious practice (U.S Department of State 3).
However, there are limitations to relying solely on social media. The truth can be manipulated, posts go unchecked, and not everyone has access to social media (Open Doors Youth). Nevertheless, social media remains an effective tool for political activism and global citizenship (BBC Future). Despite the challenges, fighting for freedom and using social media as a means to expose religious persecution and raise awareness is crucial.
In conclusion, the persecution of Christians in the Middle East is a distressing issue that requires comprehensive solutions. Social media emerges as the most effective solution, allowing for the building of relationships, protection of vulnerable communities, and encouragement of high-level acts of unity. By leveraging social media, Christians can raise awareness, advocate for their rights, and catalyze legal measures to protect against further religious persecution.
Abstract: Employment opportunities continue to be limited for Mexican immigrants. This paper analyzes the responsibility of the government to provide for Mexican immigrants coming into the U.S., concluding that the government has yet to enforce effective action. Considering that wages are inadequate for the limited employment Mexican Immigrants receive, employers should be held more accountable. It is shown that the underlying cause for inadequate employment opportunities stems from a lack of credentials from higher education. This paper highlights that passing and enforcing the DREAM Act is the most effective solution, as it allows for Mexican Immigrants to pay for higher education allowing them the credentials to appeal to employers. In addition, the DREAM Act allows immigrants to be eligible for legal residence, amplifying their appeal to employers. This paper further analyzes why the DREAM Act is effective because of its success in the House of Representatives and its open opportunities for young immigrants.
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Summary: Eligibility to quality employment continues to be a struggle for Mexican immigrants. With immigration on the rise, more Mexican immigrants come into the U.S. seeking new opportunities to provide for themselves and their families. However, with little to no money, these Mexican immigrants are unable to build the resources they need for employment. Passing and enforcing the DREAM Act will open more employment opportunities for Mexican immigrants.
As Mexican immigrants come into the U.S. they fall under the responsibility of the United States government. Experts have concluded that the government must enforce more action to aid Mexican immigrants specifically in the area of employment. Past action conducted by the U.S. government has reduced instead of improved employment opportunities. Especially since many undocumented immigrants are excluded from government assistance programs, it becomes urgent for the government to formulate effective action.
The limited employment opportunities which Mexican immigrants are eligible for, usually do not pay what that job is worth. Many Mexican immigrants looking for employment, are desperate and will work even if the pay is low. This is shocking, considering their immense contribution to the economy.
One of the main contributors to the lack of employment opportunities for Mexican immigrants is the employers. These employers often hold high standards which immigrants lack the qualifications to meet. Employers will also avoid hiring undocumented Mexican immigrants, in fear of getting in trouble with the law.
The DREAM Act allows Mexican immigrants the ability to pay for higher education and revive credentials that appeal to employers when hiring. The DREAM Act also provides temporary and permanent residence, allowing immigrants legal status. This bipartisan legislation has been passed in the House of Representatives but has yet to pass in the Senate.
The main barrier to Mexican immigrants attending high education is the cost. With the DREAM Act, states can give immigrants the price of in-state tuition. Without the DREAM Act, states would face a penalty for providing in-state tuition to immigrants.
Many of the Mexican immigrants that come into the U.S. do so at a young age. When they arrived they take on the status of their parents, which is generally ‘undocumented’ denying them the opportunities available in the United States. The DREAM Act provides young immigrants with legal status.
The DREAM Act provides Mexican immigrants the qualifications they need to be successful in the United States and should therefore be passed and enforced.
North Weymouth Compressor Station Proximity in Relation to Residential Cardiopulmonary Health in the Fore River Basin Area
Abstract: In the United States, the natural gas industry continues to expand as the country switches
from coal to natural gas as its main source for electricity generation. As the need for natural gas
rises, the infrastructure required to collect and deliver natural gas has begun to increase. This
includes the building of new pipelines and compressor stations. One of these newer pipelines
travels through the South Shore of Massachusetts, where a compressor station was also recently
built in the town of Weymouth. Due to the negative implications of compressor stations releasing
toxic pollutants that contribute to air pollution, it is of great concern for Weymouth residents as
well as other surrounding towns. The presented study thus looks at the negative health effects the
compressor station may have on residents, asking the question, “Since its opening in January of
2021, how has the North Weymouth Compressor Station Affected surrounding residential
cardiopulmonary health through its influence over air quality?”. With almost no research that
pertains to proximities to compressor stations and human health in the academic literature, the
study plans to address this gap through the use of a non-experimental correlational analysis that
looks at proximity and occurrence of cardiopulmonary diseases.
Unjust Medical Debt
Medical debt discrimination is an increasing and worrisome issue. Major causes of this issue are unresolved economic issues, failure of current policies and laws and discrimination. Without action minorities all around the globe will continue to struggle everyday. One possible solution to this issue is to revise the current laws and regulations set in place that are accompanied with this issue. The best policy to adjust is the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to benefit everyone and remove the requirements associated with it. This solution will eliminate medical bankruptcy, combat minoritized groups suffering, and improve health insurance affordability for all minorities.
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Discriminatory practices are vastly evident to everyone. However most people are unaware of these practices being in health care. Jacqueline C. Wiltshire, from the department of health policy, reveals that only 7.1% of white Americans have medical debt, as opposed to the 21.4% of African Americans that have medical debt (3). There is a clear distinction mentioned in this statistic. Mark Rukavina, a Program Director, overseeing work on the Community Benefit and Economic Stability Project, states people spend more than 10 percent of their income on health insurance, which is leading to national bankruptcy. Now causing millions of these families to lack the financial resources to cover these costs and struggle with outstanding bills (8).
Leading causes of this issue include deep rooted discrimination and failures of policies and laws. The original ACA has been found unbeneficial to minorities of both race and economic status. In many cases people of color, or people that cannot afford health insurance were turned away at the door in a time of need. Not only is this issue absurd, it's unconstitutional. Another reason people experience this issue is because of an individual's age. Wiltshire clarifies that one cause of medical debt is that older adults may have more healthcare needs induced by multiple chronic conditions and limited financial resources to pay out-of-pocket costs compared to younger adults (3). Such evaluations call for a change.
This article will study the issues from the medical, economic and political legal lenses. In this article, the research question will therefore be: What is the most effective way to address medical debt for minoritized groups in America? It was found that revising the Affordable Care Act is the best way to address this issue because it will eliminate medical bankruptcy, combat minority groups suffering, and improve health insurance affordability for all minorities.
While the original ACA is beneficial to “most” it failed to address inclusivity and equality. However with revision this can be fixed. Revising the ACA is a better solution than simply getting rid of it because of the fact that the original ACA has “touched on a broad variety of social institutions and societal relationships” despite its failure to address minorities (Campbell et al. 37). Revising the ACA is becoming increasingly necessary to prevent medical bankruptcy for minorities, prevent minority groups suffering and give the ability to limit the rise of health insurance pricing, which is a main reason it is a vital and necessary solution.
Sexual Harassment In The Workplace
Abstract: Sexual harassment is an increasingly major problem in our society since the 1900s. This paper addresses the psychological, economic and political and legal aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace. People are able to preserve through adversity by implementing sexual harassment training programs. These training programs help to recognize sexual harassment, encourage reporting and decrease victim blaming, and increases bystander intervention.
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Summary: Sexual harassment in the workplace not only harms the victims but also affects the witnesses and the people around them. Women who experience sexual harassment at work had negative effects in their mental and physical health, aiding to decreased morale and work performance. As a result, victims of sexual harassment often quite their jobs, leading to a serious lack of stability.
Sexual harassment victims have a lower job performance, and are either fired or pressured into resigning. Sexual harassment has been a problem since women have joined the union. Sexual harassment contributes to the gender wage gap and creates long-term economic impacts that can result in less engagement and the decision to leave their job.
A hostile work environment can create and increase the chances of sexual harassment. Complaints about sexual harassment can range from fostering a hostile work environment to demands for prostitution. To manage the risks of sexual harassment, companies should develop a sexual harassment policy before the problem occurs. However, the way that employees interpret the policies can invalidate the purpose of the policies. Therefore, hostile work environments need to be prevented, and all companies should have a sexual harassment policy.
The most effective solution to end sexual harassment in the workplace would be implementing sexual harassment training programs. These programs helps to create greater recognition of sexual harassment, encourages reporting while decreasing victim blame, and increases bystander intervention.
Abstract: Climate migration is felt mostly within countries along the equator. The geographic location of these countries leads to extreme effects of greenhouse gasses. Currently plans to help climate change are difficult to formulate because of poor funding, and political controversy that follows the topic. However, an FMA and a pushed United Nations stance on greenhouse gasses can help push for a change. An FMA will work for the legal coverage of climate migrants and allow for a proper integration.
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Summary: Climate migration is a clear problem facing many people, especially those in countries located on the equator. In order to properly take action there needs to be a push on the United Nations stances on greenhouse gasses, and the implementation of an FMA (free movement agreement). This will lead to there being a delay in climate change’s environmental extremities, a feasible long term solution, and an inclusion of climate migrants to their new countries legal system. Greenhouse gasses are causing a multitude of environmental issues that are forcing climate migrants out of their homeland. There is also a lot of legal controversy that surrounds solutions in conversation with climate change, causing difficulty in finding a solution. In addition to this, funding is low for most if not all climate action plans.
By pushing the United Nations stance on greenhouse gasses and implementing an FMA, there will be the sources necessary to make an impact. The pushing of the United Nations’ stance on greenhouse gas emissions will allow for a unified attack on climate change. Everyone interested can organize with a plan and use the opportunity given. An FMA, or a free movement agreement has been put into action before, and has allowed migrants to move into countries during times of climate crisis. This is a legally feasible option as it has successfully been put to use before. The coverage that the FMA gives to migrants can allow for a successful integration into new countries, therefore subtracting from points of political controversy. An FMA does have some limitations that need to be considered. While implementing an FMA, it is necessary that individuals know what rights that the FMA grants them. Education may be difficult to come by when it comes to legal aspects and human rights. In addition to that, an FMA may also cause a minor form of political controversy. However, a majority of legal solutions have a governing body or political group against them when they cover a lot of land. There are also some positive implications about this solution, because it will change the overall attitude toward climate change. This new awareness will shed light on what is truly happening and help surge even more of a change. In conclusion, action needs to be taken sooner rather than later because our whole planet needs it, not just these countries along the equator.
Abstract: Without action, the California forests will continue burning until there is nothing left for people to save. The threat of fires on the forests will continue to get worse as years go on. The wildland urban interface, the political and legal lens, and the environmental lens will all be explored in this article. These each contribute a cause to the California wildfires and have a potential solution. The best solution to the issues of wildfires in California is ecological forest restoration. The effect of ecological forest restoration is a positive implication on the forests of California. This solution will reduce the amount of fuel loads, combat effects of drought and climate, and it will restore ecosystem health.
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Summary: Natural disasters are a part of the world, and will continue to be unless people start to do something about it. All natural disasters harm people who live near them, and working together to overcome these disasters will help to bring a solution to the table. Harm can go from mentally to physically. Jacob Stern, a staff writer at The Atlantic, says that after a wildfire firefighters are 40% more likely to commit suicide and firefighters are heavily affected by PSTD (1). Physically, these wildfires are destroying the land where they reach. Alejandra Borunda, a former climate scientist writes in an article that a gigafire burned more than a million acres, all at a high severity (1). Disasters like floods and wildfires have been occurring for all of people's lives. Wildfires in California are being dealt with everyday on the west coast of the United States. With the damage that these fires cause, there has to be a solution put into place. Ecological Forest Restoration is being used to try and reduce the amount of fuel loads, combat the effects of drought and climate, and restore the ecosystem. This solution works to reduce wildfires and what is causing it, and then make the environment healthier.
In this article, the lens and stakeholders that will be explored is the political-legal lens, the environmental lens, and the WUI, the wildland urban interface. In this article, the research question will therefore be: What is the most effective way to address wildfires in California?. It was proven that using ecological forest restoration will reduce fuel loads, combat effects of drought and climate, and restore ecosystem health.
The WUI has a lot that can be done to it to reduce the amount of wildfires that are occuring. The houses are stacked so close together that if a fire sparks, it will travel quickly. In the political aspect, governments and organizations can work to protect the land from anything that could start a fire. Assembly Bills in the past have failed, however they tried to protect the land. Environmentally, the climate is a big factor when discussing the wildfires. The increase in climate contributes to the severity and frequency of these wildfires.
Ecological first restoration is the best and most effective way to address wildfires in California and all the damage that they are doing. Reducing fuel loads, combating effects of drought and climate, and restoring ecosystem health is why ecological forest restoration is the most promising solution to the wildfires in California.
PTSD in Children
PTSD in children is a significant problem in our society. This paper addresses the psychological context, sociocultural implications, and the educational impacts of PTSD in kids. Children are able to persevere through adversity by using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). It helps identify traumatic experiences, change emotional and behavioral responses, and can be implemented in schools.
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PTSD in children caused by physical abuse is a significant issue throughout the United States. Many parents hit, kick, or perform other types of abuse towards their children, creating an unhealthy, abusive relationship. This is a severe issue because when faced with adverse experiences, children are not emotionally developed and do not know how to cope with their trauma.
Many factors can add up to PTSD: threats, degree of threats, relationship to the abuser, support, development, and resilience. Because of this, PTSD is found to severely impact children’s development. Children can have risky behavior, such as running away, committing crimes, and other abnormal behaviors. Experts agree that this has a big sociocultural impact on children. They also agree PTSD must be dealt with in a very sensitive way to not trigger the disorder further.
Since there is no specific way to cure PTSD, the best thing people can do is to help reduce symptoms. The best way to help children with PTSD is CBT. It is a combination of a talk and psychotherapy that helps them relearn how to deal with difficult situations.
CBT helps identify repressed emotions and traumatic situations that PTSD had blocked out. This is a major issue in PTSD, and by identifying trauma with a therapist, it allows the child to fully understand their situation.
CBT helps children respond to trauma in a healthy way. They relearn behaviors that have been impacted by their trauma, therefore creating healthy coping mechanisms to reduce risky behavior as a form of lashing out.
Lastly, CBT can be implemented in schools using the SMBH grant as most children get a public education. This is the best way to reach low income families. CBT can help address many issues that PTSD is causing for children, as it is a significant issue in today's society.
Poor accessibility to mental health care is an increasing issue. Major causes include affordability and stigma around mental health treatments and services. Without proper care, mental health struggles have many negative implications that affect everyday life. One possible solution proposes that mental health care be incorporated with primary health care. This can be completed under state regulated insurances and funded and run by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This solution will lower uninsured medical payments for mental health treatments, reduce stigma and reacher a greater number of people.
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With mental health awareness making news headlines more frequently, Huff Posts states “more than 8.3 million Americans suffer from a serious mental health issue” (Holmes 1). The World Health Organization says “the pandemic has triggered a 25% increase in anxiety and depression worldwide” (Martin 1). For many people, accessing the proper care for mental health treatment is difficult.
Leading causes of inability to access care include affordability and stigma. Oftentimes mental health care can be costly. Prior to the ACA, health insurance plans were not required to cover mental health treatments (Porretta 1). In many scenarios, people in need of psychological help were denied treatment because they could not afford to pay the bills on their own. Another reason people are unable to access treatment is because of the fear of being judged or stigmatized as “bad people”. This social barrier often stands in the way of people reaching out for the help they need. Experiences of stigma have been shown to cause “internalized self-judgment in individuals who experience symptomatology” and as a society, this needs improvement. Natalie Wong, a researcher in the medical field shares results from her study among individuals in China who went as far as to “associate treatment-seeking with personal failure” (2). Without the proper resources, mental health struggles become more common. Mental health issues may contribute to learning difficulties along with behavioral issues, and strained family, peer, and social relationships (Jones 26). Many negative implications are associated with mental illness that will only become worse if not treated, making the push for easy access much needed.
The proposed solution of incorporating mental health care into primary care through state regulated insurances under the ACA targets the main root causes. This new solution lowers out of pocket medical payments, reduces stigma, and reaches a greater number of people. Those already receiving primary care under government based insurance such as medicaid or medicare will have an easier time accessing these services. The hope is to place more citizens on adequate insurance, paid for by the government and provide coverage for those who were unable to afford care. Research proves that individuals who report more positive attitudes toward mental health care are “more likely to seek treatment for psychological concerns”. By making mental health care more accessible through primary care sources, it becomes more normalized. Primary care is not associated with negative connotations and judgment, which encourages patients to ask for help without the burden of mental health stigma. With this solution people will be able to access the treatment closer to their homes in order to “maintain their support systems and remain integrated and active in the community” (Funk et al 1). This way, more people will engage in the services provided, reaching a larger audience.
The Journal of Scholarship at WHS is a peer reviewed journal publishing academic works by emerging scholars at Weymouth Middle and High School.