By Olivia H.
Racism is prominent in the athletic world. Many fans will do anything to show pride in their country, even through racist actions . George Orwell explains how fans use boos and insults to make sure one side is “humiliated,” (23). Claudia Rankine explains how these players are supposed to be “good” during racist attacks and humiliation (25). These players are held to higher standards than white athletes and face more scrutiny. Many believe racism in sports reflects racism in society. In 2018, a scandal broke out surrounding the Windrush generation in England and Socialist Lawyer, a legal organization in the UK, explains that the “anti-immigration” rhetoric and discriminatory aspects of the “1971 Immigration Act,” were exposed (Socialist Lawyer 2). These people face discrimination yet are considered valuable to society, like Black footballers in the Premier League. Jonathan Liew, sports writer for The Guardian, shows arrests for racist chanting increased by 150% in 2020 (2). Naz Ali, Course Leader in Sports Management, states 43% of footballers faced racial abuse on Twitter last July (3). What is the most effective way to address racism towards Black footballers in the Premier League? To understand the complexity of this topic, it is important to look at it from a historical lens, the view of commentators and fans, and the view of Black players. Through exploration it will become clear that the organization Kick It Out is most effective because it tackles social media issues, addresses legal issues, and solves performative activism.
By Kat D
Throughout many athletic organizations there is a major sexual harassment issue.
Theodore Roosevelt states that “that character counts for a great deal more than either intellect or
body in winning success in life” ( Roosevelt 1). Many coaches let sports get in the way of their
character. Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka states the claim that “in the past, athletes, coaches and
officials have turned a blind eye to sexual harassment” ( Mlambo- Ngcuka 2), in performance
sports specifically. Performance sports is used to describe sports where the “games” are
performances, for example Dance, Gymnastics and Cheer. Johnathon Halbeslesben, PhD in
workplace contentment studied that 44% of female employees experiences sexual harassment.
However only 6% formally reported the behavior. Vivian Krauchek, head coach at the University
of Calgary claims that 20% identified sexual harassment, 54% had experienced, but many of
these women refused to speak out. Finally Chanel DaSilva, professional Dancer for the Harvard
Dance Project states that “countless cases of sexual misconduct survivors being ignored,
dismissed, punished for speaking up” ( Dasilva 1). So what is the best way to address sexual
harassment in performance sports? To understand the complexity of this topic it is important to
study it from the view of coaches and athletes and a socio/cultural lens. Through this exploration
it will become clear that a “zero tolerance” policy is the most effective solution because it addresses the imbalance in dominance leading to harassment, holds the perpetrator accountable and provides protection for the whole institution.
By Sara M.
Wrongful convictions are a concerning issue for the U.S criminal justice system. Boaz Sangero, Head of the Department of Criminal Law at the Academic College of Law, states that there were 2,566 exonerations from wrongful convictions as of March 2020. Earl Smith, Professor of American Ethics and Sociology at Wake Forest University, furthers the extent by estimating that six percent of people incarcerated are innocent. If this is accurate, “as many as 140,000 people may be factually innocent” (Smith and Hattery 3). This is problematic because, in wrongful convictions, innocent people are punished while perpetrators remain free and the public is at risk, according to Jon Gould, Professor in the Department of Justice, Law and Criminology at American University. Additionally, data shows racial disparity as a contributor to wrongful convictions. Seventy percent of exonerees have been black, despite only being 40-50% of the incarcerated population, illustrating that they are “disproportionately represented” in wrongful convictions (Smith and Hattery 4). This literary review analyzes wrongful convictions with a cultural/social lens. A careful evaluation of research highlights how the effects of racial bias, and unreliable evidence lead to wrongful convictions, and how reforms in the criminal justice system can prevent them.
By Kat D.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a concerning problem for people in their everyday life. Jacob Priest, a professor of family couples therapy claims that GAD affects “approximately 3.1% of the US population each year”(Priest 1) and is increasing exponentially. Harvard medical school, an institution for medical teachings, explains that GAD is defined as an anxiety that is “chiefly debilitating by worry and agitation about nothing in particular” ( Harvard Medical Journal 2). Making GAD draining and exhausting. J Prenoveau professor in psychometrics has driven further development of the claim that GAD can lead to other disorders like “major depressive disorder and panic disorder” (Prenoveau 1). GAD is an epidemic that affects millions of people today. This literature review analyzes GAD. It questions this concerning problem by considering the sociocultural causes and potential solutions. A careful evaluation of the research on the sociocultural aspect of this issue highlights the importance of discrimination causing GAD, trauma presenting GAD symptoms, and mindfulness based therapies
By Marianna C.
Reducing Isolation and Improving Quality of Life for Elderly Care Recipients
Institutions made to better health may be detrimental to one's quality of life. Akyil and Pullum from Aydın Adnan Menderes University state social inclusion is a factor in psychological and cognitive well-being of seniors, and a lack of social inclusion may lead to increased alcohol or tobacco consumption, as well as a decrease in physical activity. (Pullum, Akyil). Other care options exist, such as assisted living, group homes, respite care, home care, and day-care for the elderly. However, these may not be accessible for many elderly people due to cost issues, even under Medicare or other healthcare plans. The federal government should focus medicare policies to promote various types of care to create the best environments possible for recipients, this will prevent elderly isolation and depression, and improve quality of life.
By Kylie H
Inequity of Education for Women in Africa
Educational opportunities for women in many areas of the world have been stripped away from them. Research by the Human Rights Watch, an organization that conducts research and advocacy for human rights, stated that “more than 49 million girls are out of primary and secondary school in Sub-Saharan Africa, with 31 million of them out of secondary education” (1). Additionally, “Eighty-five percent of all African women are illiterate” according to Nadia Sudarkasa, former director of the Center for Afroamerican and African Studies (4). Khitman Azaiza, Director of Instructional Design and Digital Media Production, mentions that “education opens the opportunities and choices for women to work and become more self-confident” (1). So, the question is what is the most effective way to increase women’s education in Africa? In order to sufficiently address this issue, the African government must enforce alternative learning opportunities to stimulate equity among the education system.
By: Sophia V
Implementing An Adolescent Empowerment Program in Local Nigerian Communities
Should local Nigerian leaders implement an empowerment program for adolescent girls to help abolish child marriages? An analysis of the medical, economic, cultural, and social aspects of early marriage calls for an empowerment program to raise awareness, enhance knowledge, and deter unplanned pregnancies to prevent additional victims
Below are links to the student papers along with excerpts form their papers. Topics were chosen to align with the 2020 Stimulus Packet from the College Board.
The Journal of Scholarship at WHS is a peer reviewed journal publishing academic works by emerging scholars at Weymouth Middle and High School.